Выпуск 2, 2012 г.
Operating experience of elements of branch monitoring system of space ionizing radiation influence on the spacecraft electronics, the analysis of flight data, forecasts of space ionizing radiation characteristics
V.S. Anashin, S.V. Balashov, S.P. Gaidash, G.A. Protopopov, N.V. Sergeecheva
The analysis of onboard measurements of cumulative dose received by means of integrated cumulative dose sensors, placed on different spacecrafts is presented. The flight data is compared with measurements of other monitoring systems and with ground measurements.
Keywords: dose, spacecraft, ionizing radiation, flight data, space weather forecast.
Methodical questions of CCD-matrix neutron irradiation and the analysis of received information
A.S. Vorobyev, K.N. Ermakov, E.M. Ivanov, N.A. Ivanov, O.V. Lobanov, V.V. Pashuk, M.G. Tverskoy, O.A. Scherbakov
The information, received at CCD-matrix neutron irradiation with spectrum similar to atmospheric neutron spectrum is analyzed. The maximum neutron fluence in a range of energies of 1-1000 MeV is 3,2·109 neutron/sm2. It is established that the amount of solder joints grows with increase of neutron fluence. In irradiated CCD-matrix are researched the temporal dependences of reduction of solder joints with various boundary value of dark current which are approximated by exponential functions.
Keywords: CCD-matrix, irradiation, dark current, solder joint.
Failure tolerance techniques of space equipment
Special features of latch-up in electronic equipment caused by influence of single nuclear particles are considered. It is established that latch-up can induced the different types of equipment failures. It is shown that the durable solution for protection against failures is application of circuit and system approaches. Recommendations about equipment failure management and examples of implementation of reservation methods, and also optimization of equipment operation cycloramas are presented.
Keywords: space vehicle, single radiation effect, onboard equipment, failure tolerance, circuit and system approaches.
Research of single failure effect in VLSI SOI of scratch pad memory with information capacity 1 Mbit at influence of neutrons with energy 14 МeV
E.Yu. Shamaev, V.P. Shukailo, A.P. Stepovik, S.I. Volkov, S.A. Morozov
Research of single failure effect in VLSI SOI of scratch pad memory with design rule 0,35 mkm and information capacity 1 Mbit at neutron radiation with energy 14 MeV of installation НГ-12И for different recorded data is resulted.
Keywords: single failure, VLSI SOI of scratch pad memory, data type.
Ionization currents in GaAs Schottky field-effect transistors at the different excitation levels and conditions
V.P. Shukailo, O.V. Tkachev, S.M. Dubrovsky, N.V. Basargina
Response of high-frequency GaAs Schottky field-effect transistors at excitation by bremsstrahlung with quanta average energy of 1 MeV and photon pulse with average energy 2,7 eV is experimentally researched. The strong dependence of relaxation time on temperature and intensity of influence is shown.
Keywords: gallium arsenide, ionization current, bremsstrahlung, GaAs Schottky field-effect transistor.
Comparing radiation and thermal aging of MOS integrated circuits
G.F. Belova, V.D. Popov, Chzho Co Vin
The experimental results of radiation tests of integrated circuits and results of quick tests are presented. Possibility of ionizing radiation use for data acquisition of MOS IMS reliability and storage is shown.
Keywords: ionizing radiation, radiation tests, MOS IMS, surface states.
Application evaluation of neural networks for calculation of trigonometric functions at creation of computing systems of mobile object control
V.M. Antimirov, A.Yu. Vagin, A.V. Shlensky
Principles of application of neural networks for productivity increase of onboard computing systems at mobile object control are considered.
Keywords: system, network, trigonometric function, inertial system, training, coordinates, calculation accuracy.
Efficiency increase of onboard computing systems at influence of space factors
V.M. Antimirov, A.Yu. Vagin, A.V. Shlensky
Possibilities of efficiency increase of onboard computing systems for space object control, ways of their productivity optimization by change of high-speed response and structure adaptation to fatal and parametric failures of their components are considered.
Keywords: computing system, parameter degradation, adaptation, master oscillator, synchronization, dose effects.
Generations of onboard digital computing systems
V.M. Antimirov, M.B. Trapeznikov
Main principles of realization of several generations of onboard controlling computer systems with description of singularities of used element base are considered, beginning from discrete electronics with transfer from LSI application to development of custom VLSI, providing creation of distributed computing controlling systems such as stand-alone subsystems of type system-on-chip. Herewith for each generation are presented main principles of reliability improvement by structural and circuit approaches, including support of operation stability at internal and exterior electromagnetic radiations.
Keywords: control system, digital computer, pulse electromagnetic radiation, nonvolatile memory, dynamic trigger, architecture, monitoring device, system-on-chip.
Research of leakage currents of vacuum switching devices at pulse gamma radiation influence
The review of possible conditions of leakage current generation of vacuum switching devices at ionizing radiation influence is resulted. The research summary of high-frequency vacuum switches at pulse gamma radiation influence is presented and main mechanisms of leakage current generation in them are revealed.
Keywords: vacuum switching devices, leakage currents, pulse gamma radiation.
Comparison of characteristics of failure tolerance scratch pad memory cells made by bulk silicon technology of 65 nanometers and by SOI technologies of 0,25-0,35 microns
P.S. Dolotov, M.S. Gorbunov
For bulk silicon technology with design rule of 65 nanometers are developed the units of static random access memory with increased ionizing radiation resistance. In units are used the DICE memory cells, the redundancy of address-selection and control logic is done. Characteristics of memory cells and flip-flops with already existing analogs made by technologies «silicon-on-insulator» with design rule of 0,35 and 0,25 microns are compared. Also commercial non-resistant analogs are considered.
Keywords: single failures, memory cells, RAM, DICE, SOI.
Rated validation of measuring procedure of power temporal distributions
of gamma radiation powerful pulse sources
Yu.I. Chernuhin, V.N. Afanasev, V.D. Lartsev, S.I. Streltsov, V.A. Terehin, D.V. Hmelnitsky, A.A. Yudov
Calculation data on validation of measuring procedure of «momentary» energy spectrum of pulse bremsstrahlung by heterogeneous scintillation detector are resulted. Numerical experiments have been fulfilled on example of bremsstrahlung pulse of electron direct action accelerator IGUR-3 (t1/2 ~70 nanoseconds). It is shown that at measurement accuracy of 1 %, an error in energy spectrum groups recovered during the various moments of pulse radiation time makes 10-20 %.
Keywords: heterogeneous scintillation detector, accelerator IGUR-3, bremsstrahlung spectrum, b-spline,ill-posed problem, MCNP program.
The analysis of CCD-matrix areas with big dark currents
N.A. Ivanov, V.V. Pashuk, T.E. Ponezhе, M.G. Tverskoy
The algorithm intended for separation of pixel areas of CCD-matrix in which the dark current exceeds the given threshold is described. The algorithm was used for image analysis of matrix irradiated with neutrons of atmospheric spectrum. The area of solder joints with different boundary value of dark current is resulted.
Keywords: CCD-matrix, irradiation, dark current, solder joint.
The corner ionization chamber
K.N. Ermakov, N.A. Ivanov, E.A. Kotikov, O.V. Lobanov, A.F. Naidenkov, V.V. Pashuk, M.G. Tverskoy
The absolute monitor of proton beam with the packageless ionization chamber in which the proton beam transits between high-voltage and signal electrodes is developed and experimentally tested. Four signal electrodes are placed on beam in general panel, and high-voltage electrode is oriented under some corner to this panel. The camera works with air at atmospheric pressure. Measurements are done on proton beam with energy of 1 GeV and flow 3,5·109 рroton/sec. The measurement error is ~5,5 %.
Keywords: ionization chamber, monitor, proton beam.
Experience of differential scanning calorimetry use for diagnostics of thermoradiation ageing of polyethylene-insulated cables
Possibilities of differential scanning calorimetry use for state and lifetime estimation of cross-linked poly-ethylene insulation on induction period and oxidation temperature at high ambient temperature and radiation are considered. The model for conservative estimation of cable lifetime of in-core control system in nuclear power stations with WWER-1000 is presented.
Keywords: polyethylene insulation, oxidation temperature, induction period, ageing, radiation, high temperature, lifetime.
About migration of radiolysis products in polymer composite materials
The numerical analysis of radiolysis product distribution in model polymer composite material taking into account the drift component of their migration is done. It is shown that the drift component can both to accelerate and to decelerate migration of potential outgassing products to free surface «material-vacuum».
Keywords: mathematical model, electron radiation, radiolysis products, drift speed, diffusion, polymer composite material.
About radiation influence on accumulation of outgassing products and radiation sputtering of polymer composite on quartz glass surface
R.H. Hasanshin, V.I. Kostyuk, N.G. Alexandrov, E.Yu. Porzhezhinskaya
The experimental research of deposition of outgassing products and radiation sputtering of polymer composite material on surface of protective glass of space solar-battery cells at electron radiation is resulted.
Keywords: spacecraft, composite material, intrinsic outer atmosphere, radiation, outgassing, sputtering, protective glass, spectrum of transmission coefficient.
To research of the optical surface degradation of high-orbit space vehicles
R.H. Hasanshin, V.I. Kostyuk, A.V. Kosogorov, E. Yu. Porzhezhinskaya, A.P. Shahorin
Change of transmission coefficients of quartz glass samples КУ-1 under influence of molecular fluxes and the subsequent electron radiation and UV-radiation is experimentally researched.
Keywords: radiation, electrons, UV-radiation, quartz glass, spectrum of transmission coefficient.
The device for measurement of space radiation doses under protection of the various thickness
I.V. Getselev, V.I. Tulupov, B.Ya. Shcherbovsky
The simple device for monitor measurements of space radiation doses of charged particles flux under different thickness of aluminum protection and for relation measurement in them amounts of protons, alpha particles and groups of some kernels is offered.
Keywords: semiconductor detector, radiation dose, chemical compound of charged particle flux.
Nuclear radiation detector on the basis of Schottky сontacts to undoped epitaxial layers GaAs
G.I. Koltsov, S.I. Didenko, A.V. Chernyh, S.V. Chernyh, A.P. Chubenko, G.I. Britvich
Spectral characteristics of detectors with Schottky contact on 40 microns undoped epitaxial layers of gallium arsenide from various radiation sources are researched. Some variants of application of detectors on the basis of offered structures are considered.
Keywords: gallium arsenide, chloride epitaxy, nuclear detector, Schottky contact, energy resolution, charge collection efficiency.
Dependence of pulse IR-source reliability from plasma radiation
S.V. Gavrish, V.V. Loginov, S.V. Puchnina, D.V. Sherstnev
The factors defining reliability of discharge radiation source with sapphire jacket are considered. On the basis of mathematical model and experiment are conducted researches of temperature state of jackets at plasma radiation. Temperature dependence of limit failure stress of sapphire tube is studied. Thermoelastic stress in sapphire-metal seals are calculated and optimal design data of such connection are selected. The mechanic-climatic tests of the developed lamps are resulted.
Keywords: discharge, cesium, sapphire, corundum, failure stress, seal stress, durability, temperature.
Use of converters for gamma radiation field gain
S.O. Vyazmin, L.I. Mikhailova, G.L. Pikalov, I.A. Chuprin
The task of gamma radiation field gain in certain space region on reactor PRIZ-M, where test objects take place, is considered. The devices converting neutrons in gamma quantums are thus used. By the calculated-experimental method is estimated the secondary gamma radiation from two converters in case of different options of their placement concerning test object. Also optimization task at the choice of an effective thickness of converters is decided.
Keywords: converters, neutrons, gamma quantums, research reactor.
Forecasting of dose of delayed gamma radiation on reactor PRIZ-M
G.L. Pikalov, Yu.G. Bazaka, N.A. Komarov, I.S. Krasnokutsky
Researches according to a dose of delayed gamma quantums on various distances from core region of reactor PRIZ-M, and also during the various times after reactor shutdown are resulted.
Keywords: reactor, gamma radiation, dosimetry.
Bremsstrahlung source on the basis of two pulse electron accelerators EMIR-2
B.N. Lavrentyev, R.N. Munasypov, D.E. Pavlovskih, V.V. Pereshitov, R.V. Protas, R.R. Hafizov, Yu.P. Bakulin
The bremsstrahlung source EMIR-2 on the basis of two pulse electron accelerators, intended for radiation resistance researches and tests of electronic component base to gamma radiation influence, is provided. The device of electron accelerators and three oscillating modes of bremsstrahlung pulses are considered: the complex shaped pulse containing nanosecond (30-80 nanoseconds) and microsecond (1-1,5 microseconds) components; the monopulse representing superposition of nanosecond bremsstrahlung pulses; two sequential nanosecond pulses with adjustable time delay 1-1000 microseconds and more.
Keywords: radiation resistance, accelerator EMIR-2, radiation zone, bremsstrahlung.